Some of these, like articles and conjunctions, you would know as parts of speech, while others, like predicates or subordinate clauses, are ideas that explain the elements of a sentence. A single word or a group of words that perform one function can both be constituents.
Let's study the technical components that sentences are made up of: parts of speech and sentence constituents, before we really start diagramming sentences. The functions of words play a big part in sentence diagramming, therefore it's important to know what each word or phrase does so you can place it appropriately.
The subject is the person who performs the action in a sentence.
Predicate verb: The predicate, which is located in the middle of the phrase, describes the entire activity of the clause.
Direct object: The noun that the action is directed toward is the direct object.
The noun that gets the direct object is known as the indirect object.
Preposition: Prepositions that indicate connections such as direction, time, place, and space include in, at, to, or behind.
Modifier: Modifiers, like adjectives and adverbs, give nouns, verbs, or other modifiers greater description. My, your, and Mom's are examples of possessive nouns that also function as modifiers since they operate as adjectives.
Another type of modifier is the article, which designates a noun as either particular (the) or unspecific (a, an).
Appositive: An appositive is a specific type of modifying component that might be a noun or noun phrase. For descriptive reasons, appositives can rename or further identify another word.
Conjunction: Words or sentences are joined together by conjunctions such and, but, and or.
Subordinate clauses: It must be joined by an independent clause to produce a full sentence. They have a subject and a predicate. Both noun and infinitive clauses fall under this category.
Gerund: Gerunds are verbs that take the participle or -ing form and function as nouns.