English Tenses - Basics - Class 3 and 4


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English Tenses - Basics - Class 3 and 4

There are certain languages where verb tenses are not important neither do they exist but in English, tenses are very important. We will teach you how to avoid confusing tense with time and how to structure the 12 basic tenses, with examples using a regular verb, an irregular verb, and the verb "be".

                                               The Present Indefinite Tense (Simple Present Tense)

We use this tense form to refer -

(i)     things that are always true.

(ii)   situations that exist now and will go on indefinitely for general time.

(iii) habits or things that happen regularly.

(iv)  universal truth.

e.g.    The sun rises in the east.

He always comes here on Sundays. Seema and Renu are girls.

I get up at 6 every morning

(A)    Affirmative (Positive) Sentences

Pattern - Subject + V1 / V1 + s/es .........

e.g.    1. I learn  my lesson.    

2. Sita sings a sweet song.    

3. You  write a letter.                

4.They learn their lessons.

5. He goes to school.

6.We play hockey.

Rule 1. 's' or 'es' is added to the first form of the verb when the subject is in the III person (He, She, It) and of Singular number. (as shown in sentence No. 2and 5 above). Any singular noun subject is treated as a III person e.g. Sita, Car, Jaipur etc.     (Except I which is I person)
Rule 2. If the subject of a sentence is in Plural number (We, They), the verb used will also bein plural form i.e. 's' or 'es' is not added to verbs.        (Seesentences No. 4 and 6 above)

Spelling Rules

Rule 3. 'I' and 'You' subjects do not take verbs with 's' or 'es'. (See sentence No. 1 and 3 above)

Remember the following spelling rules while adding 's' or 'es' to the first form of the verb :

(A)     Negative Sentences

Pattern - Subject + do/does+ not + V1 .........

1. I do not learn  my lesson.                          5.You do not go to school.

2. They  do  not play hockey.                        6. We do not read our books.

3. He does not write a letter.                        7. He never tells a lie.

4. Sita does not singa sweet song.

Rule 1. In negative sentences' does not' is used before the first form of verb with the III person singular subjects (He, She, It or any name of person, place or thing).

Do not use 's' or 'es' with the verbs, as shown in sentences 3 and 4 above.

Rule 2. 'do not' is used with the subjects plural in number (you, we, they), as shown in sentences 2, 5 and 6above and with I person singular (I) as in sentence 1 above.

Rule 3. The word 'never' shows negativity in itself, so when using 'never' before a verb, do not use 'do/does not'. But verb takes its 's' or 'es' form. You may see sentence no. 7 above.

(B)     Interrogative Sentences

Pattern -       Do/Does + subject + V1............... ?


Wh-Question Word + do/does + subject + V1................................ ?

1.  Does he read a  book?                                    6. When does he go to school ?

2.  Do I give you a pen ?                                    7. How many pencils do they want ?

3.  Does your mother love  you ?                        8. Who comes to your house daily ?

4.  Why does she come  here ?                             9.Does she not write a letter ?

5.  Which book do you want ?                           10.Who does not like milk ?

Rule 1. Interrogative sentences 'Does' is used before the third person noun subjects in singular number and the first form of the verb does not have 's' or 'es'. (Sentences 1 and   3 above)
Rule 2. Before I, you, We, They and other subjects in plural number 'Do' is used and then verb in the first form is used. (See sentence No. 2 above)
Rule 3. Interrogative Sentences beginning with Question words like What, Where, Why, When, Where How etc. 'do or does' is used before the subject. (as shown in sentences 4 and 6 above)
Rule 4. If the wh-question words are used as adjective in the sentence then the concerning noun words may immediately follow them. (See sentences 5 and 7 above).
Rule 5. If the wh-question word itself functions as a subject, then it follows the main verb directly as shown in sentence No. 8 above. Do/does are not written in such situations.
Rule 6. Interrogative - Negative sentences can also be framed, following the rules given above, along with adding 'not' after the subject word as given in sentence No. 9.
Rule 7. Interrogative - Negative sentences beginning with wh-question words functioning as subject take 'do' or 'does' before'not'. (For examplesee sentence No. 10 above)
Rule8. Use the mark of interrogation (?) at the end of these sentences.


Fill in the blanks with the verbs given in the bracket(make changes if needed) :

1.    Ratan usually.................up at 4 o’clock in the morning.                                                             (get)

2.    Theyoften.................to the movies.                                                                                                   (go)

3.  The sun.................in the west.                                                                                                            (set)

4.    Every mother.................her children affectionately.                                                                 (love)

5.    Neeraj.................gamesregularly in the morning.                                                                       (play)

6.    He.................milkbefore going to bed.                                                                                          (take)

7.    Those who.........always succeed.                                                                                                      (try)

8.    Birdsusually.................nests in the trees.                                                                                   (make)

9.    The PrimeMinister.................to our townon Thursday next.                                  (come)

10.    Our brave soldiers always.................watchful eyes on the border.                                       (keep)

11.    You sometimes ........... somewhatperturbed.                                                                 (seem)

12.    Lotus always......... in mud.                                                                                                       (bloom)

13.    A philosopher.............. everything with a  different viewpoint.                                             (view)

14. ........... historyever .......... itself?                                                                                                (repeat)

15.    ........... all teachers ........... inspiration in the students?                                             (infuse)

16.    Two and two .......... four.                                                                                                              (make)

17.    Our deeds........... our destiny.                                                                                    (determine)

18.    Pakistani soldiers......... two Indian soldiers on the LOC.                                   (behead)

19.    My brother seldom........... a coat in cold days.                                                            (wear)

20.    Monkeys ........... nests.                                                                                                    (not build)

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