How to create Chicago-style citations and references, with examples

Author's First Name Last Name, “Title of Web Page,” Name of Website, Publisher, publication date or revision date, URL. Use your access date for undated articles.

Front page

The rules for the CMOS title page are based on Turabian formatting. If your paper has a title page, place the title and subtitle (if necessary) on separate lines, centered about one-third down the page.

Include all additional information requested by your instructor two thirds down the page. In addition to your name, course number, title, and the date you turned in the paper, this part may additionally include your student ID number or the name of your teacher.

Primary Body

Each page of the main body should have a page number in the upper right corner. Unlike in MLA format, this number can stand alone and does not require your last name.

If you're using the Notes-Bibliography citation style, indicate each in-text citation with a superscript number, and then list these citations in numerical order at the bottom of the page, just after a page break that spans around one-third of the text. A footnote is a citation that appears at the bottom of the page.

An illustration of an in-text citation in Notes-Bibliography format may be seen below:

Thomas Peters, The Rainiest Days We Recorded Thus Far in 2022 (Newark:

Example Press, 2022), 16.

With the Author-Date system, in-text citations look a bit different. Here is the same example, but using the Author-Date citation format: 

       Although it was a rainy day, it wasn’t the rainiest day they recorded that year.

Peters asserted that “the rainiest day that year was March 18th” (Peters, 2022).

Despite this, the ground retained more water than it did on previous rainy days. 

  • Citations in the Chicago style

Your paper must also have a thorough references page labeled "References" if you selected the Author-Date citation style or "Bibliography" if you used the Notes-Bibliography style. The format of the sources is the same in all formats, with the exception of where the publication date should be placed. It appears right after the author's name in the Author-Date format. It appears near the conclusion of the citation in the Notes-Bibliography format. Whether it is a movie, Wikipedia page, website, or YouTube video will determine exactly where it is.

Here are two illustrations of CMOS book citations:

Notes-Bibliography: first and last names. Name of the book. Publishing location: Publisher, publication year.

Author-Date: Last name, First name, Year Published. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Figures and tables

Tables and figures are placed right within the body of your essay. Each table and figure should be given a numerical designation (Table 1, Table 2, etc.) and should be referred to in the text using that designation.

Give a brief description of the image directly under each table or figure.