four modes of composition-CEFR

A fact is interpreted in an exposition. It enhances a description by adding more details that illuminate how the issue fits into a broader debate.

There are four types of composition:

  • Description
  • Exposition
  • Narration
  • Argumentation

A description is a piece of writing that expresses its subject clearly. This is an illustration of a description:

Water has a boiling temperature of 100 degrees Celsius and a freezing value of 0 degrees Celsius. Its molecular symbol is H2O. In our atmosphere, water atoms are the most prevalent. Water is essential to all Earthly life.

A description does not make assumptions or present viewpoints or interpretations. It only lays forth the facts.


Through careful transition words and extrapolation, it may investigate related facts and what they suggest or pivot to relevant themes. An exposition doesn't incorporate the author's personal beliefs; it is nonetheless based on facts.


Despite the fact that water is the element in our atmosphere that is most prevalent, annual droughts wreak havoc on entire regions. Due to agricultural loss, these droughts may cause mass hunger. Droughts can be lessened by switching to more environmentally friendly farming methods, but doing so successfully needs collaboration between governmental entities and private businesses.


The literary style known as narration expresses the author's point of view. However, via the author's account of their experience, the literature examines and investigates the issue while remaining primarily about its subject rather than its creator. 

Here is an illustration of a narrative piece:

I would argue that my healthy appreciation for water stems from an encounter I had with it when I was a little child. My family made the decision to launch the boat because it was a lovely summer day. My brother and I were trying to use buckets to empty the pooled rainwater when the sky suddenly turned gloomy, turning our pleasant summer day into a terrible summer rainstorm.


In an argumentative essay, the author provides two or more points of view on a subject and then uses a logical analysis of each to show which viewpoint is the most sensible. Look at this illustration:

We may utilize a variety of ways to avert droughts, according to researchers. These include stopping deforestation, using renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels, and collecting rainwater. These tactics have varying success rates.

In this case, the author would compare the documented success rates of these various drought avoidance techniques.