How to identify themes in writing and literature -CEFR

Note the plot of the work: Take a few moments to write down the main literary elements: plot, characterization, setting, tone, language style, etc. ... Identify the subject of the work: If you were to tell a friend what the work of literature was about, how would you describe that?
Methods for Recognizing Themes in Published Works
  1. Take note of the work's plot: Write down the essential literary components, such as the story, characterisation, setting, tone, linguistic style, etc., in a brief period of time. What conflicts existed at work? What part of the project was the most crucial? Is the conflict resolved by the author? How was the job completed?
  2. Determine the topic of the work: What would you explain about the literary piece if you had to explain it to a friend? What do you think the subject is?

  1. Who is the protagonist, or primary character? In what way does he or she change? Does the main character influence the other characters? How does this person interact with others?

  1. Evaluate the author's viewpoint: Lastly, consider the author's perspective on the characters and the decisions they make. What would the author's perspective be on how the primary conflict is resolved? What point would the author be trying to make? The main idea is conveyed here. You could find hints in the language employed, in statements made by key characters, or in how disputes are finally resolved. 

  1. Keep in mind that none of these components (story, subject, character, or point of view) stands alone as a theme. But recognising them is a crucial first step in figuring out what the main subject or motifs are in a piece of writing.